Why does Hyper IgM syndrome predispose to P jirovecii infections?

Here is an interesting concept.

We know that in Hyper IgM syndrome, there is an inability to undergo normal class-switching or somatic hypermutation in B cells.

It is characterized by normal level of B cells with diminished levels of IgG, IgE and IgA and with high levels of IgM.

That is why, these patients are susceptible to infections by extracellular pathogens that require class-switched antibodies for clearance, such as pyogenic bacteria.

But why would it predispose to P jirovecii (P. carni) infections? Pneumocystis doesn't require antibodies for clearance!

Hairy cell leukemia

I am raising awareness about hematological malignancies this month.

Today, it's all about hairy cell leukemia.

BugsFeed: 7 bad ass organisms that can survive intracellularly in immune cells

1. Mycobacterium tuberculosis - Stops fusion!

Phagolysosome fusion
Mycobacterium tuberculosis utilizes macrophages for its replication! (It uses the usual killer to expand it's army :O ) How does tuberculosis bacilli survive in macrophages? M. tuberculosis has evolved a number of very effective survival strategies - It inhibits phagosome-lysosome fusion and inhibits phagosome acidification ensuring it's survival inside the macrophage.

BugsFeed: 4 bacteria that forgot how to bacteria

1. Mycoplasma - They are devoid of cell walls.

Yup. They lack cell wall precursors like muramic acid. No fixed shape or size. You could easily mistake mycoplasma for a virus, they even pass through bacterial filters!

BugsFeed: 7 reasons why Staphylococcus aureus should be your new favorite bacteria

1. It produces golden yellow colonies. 

Gold is royal.

2. They have the ability to develop resistance to every antibiotic you can think of.

Penicillin, methicillin, vancomycin. You name it.

Totally yummy: Coccobacilli

A coccobacillus (plural coccobacilli) is a type of bacterium with a shape intermediate between cocci (spherical bacteria) and bacilli (rod-shaped bacteria).

They remind me of chocolate (So tasty!)
It's also why chocolate agar is my favorite agar xD

Totally delicious

Competitive ELISA

The fourth type of ELISA is competitive ELISA. As the name suggest there is going to be a competition between someone. Now let’s see between whom is this competition exactly going to be.

Competitive ELISA

Immunoglobulin A and IgA deficiency mnemonic

IgA occurs as a monomer in the bloodstream and as a dimer when secreted (linked by the secretory component or a J chain attained from epithelial cells before secretion).

IgA is secreted onto mucosal surfaces (gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory) to block attachment of pathogens to mucous membranes.

Mnemonic: “ABCDE
A: Alone (Monomer)
B: in Blood
C: Component (Secretory component) or Chain (J chain) makes
D: Dimer
E: in Epithelial surfaces

What happens in IgA deficiency? Mnemonic!

Sandwich ELISA

To remember this type of ELISA, imagine a sandwich! The antigen is the filling and the antibodies are the yummy bread. Hungry, aren't you?

Sandwich ELISA

Indirect ELISA

Indirect ELISA is used for detection of a particular antibody in a given sample. Most of the HIV diagnosis kits use indirect ELISA principle.

Indirect ELISA

Direct ELISA

Direct ELISA is performed by attaching the sample antigens on a surface (walls of wells) then a specific antibody is applied so that it can bind to its corresponding antigen.

Direct ELISA

ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay

ELISA: Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay

From pregnancy detection kits to HIV diagnosis it is ELISA which gives us appropriate results.  

Though ELISA has got a complex name, the way in which it diagnosis is really simple!

ELISA is performed in special micro titre plates which has wells in which we add our sample and then perform ELISA.

There are 4 types of ELISA:

We’ll explain them one by one over the next few blogs. So stay tuned! :)

Written by Komal M. Kadam

Dendritic cells simplified

"Dendritic cells are messengers. I imagine them blowing loud sirens or ringing bells, alarming all the warriors to prepare for battle."

Dendritic cell

Interleukin 1 mnemonic

The name (IL) followed by a number (for example IL-l or IL-2) was coined in an attempt to develop a standardized nomenclature for molecules secreted by, and acting on, leukocytes.

IL-1: It is an acute phase reactant synthesized by macrophages contributing to the acute inflammatory response, including fever, leukocyte recruitment, adhesion molecule activation, and stimulation of further chemokine production.

Mnemonic: One makes you burn like the sun.

We are writing a book, Immunowesome and it will be available for download soon! Stay tuned :D

Neuron pencil: Sweet, sugar and blood

Diabetes needle pricks